RTE Timeline (1950 - 2010)
The Constitution stated in its Article 45 that “The state shall endeavour to provide, within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”.
Centre government put the responsibility for primary education on a joint state / centre responsibility, the “concurrent list” in an amendment (the 42nd) to the Constitution.
A fundamental right to life and liberty in the Constitution, Article 21 was used to promote elementary education in a legal case against the regional state government of Andra Pradesh 1993.
“Entitlements sanctioned by the Constitution cannot be deferred by the State at its convenience. The State has to make the necessary reallocation of resources, by superseding other important claims, if necessary, in a manner that the justifiable entitlement becomes a reality”
A new Federal Right stated that “The state shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age 6 to 14 years in such manner as the state may, by law, determine“ (86 Amendment to the Constitution)
First draft of the Right to Education bill was circulated for public review.
Second draft of the bill, after consideration of the feedback to the first draft, was circulated for public review.
Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) committee drafted the ‘Right to Education Bill” and submitted to the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD).
The Finance committee and Planning commission rejected the Bill citing the lack of funds and a Model bill was sent to states for the making necessary arrangements. The States promptly sent the model bill back to the Centre citing lack of funds. The Bill was virtually buried for two years.
The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Bill was introduced in the Rajya Sabha. The Rajya Sabha referred the bill to the Department-related Parliamentary Standing Committee on Human Resource Development.
- On July 20, the Rajya Sabha passed the Bill with minor changes to the 2008 draft bill.
- On August 4, the Lok Sabha passed the Bill.
- On August 26, the President gave her assent to the Bill, thereby notifying it and bringing it into force as an Act.
- Jan 29. Minister for Human Resource Development Kapil Sibal approved the Model Rules for the Right to Education which state governments will use for their implementation of the Act.
- April 1. The RTE Act will be enforced by central government.